PILGRIMAGE  in  HOLY-LANDS

 

JERUSALEM

 

TEMPLE MOUNT - HARAM ES SHARIF

 

Temple Mount adalah dataran agak tinggi di kota tua Yerusalem. Kini sebagai tempat suci utama bagi umat Islam yang disebut Haram Es Sharif (Noble Sanctuary), tempat ini kaya akan sejarah dan tempat yang dianggap suci bagi umat lainnya. Seperti tempat-tempat di Yerusalem, Temple Mount merupakan tempat suci yang hakiki bagi Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam.

Currently, the Temple Mount / Haram Es Sharif is governed by the Waqf, the Supreme Muslim Religious Council. The site has been under Muslim control since the Muslim reconquest of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century.

 

Aerial view of the Temple Mount, with the Dome of the Rock in the center and the Al Aqsa Mosque on the left

 

This state of affairs was not changed after the area containing the Temple Mount came under Jewish control after the Six-Day War, and Muslims retain almost complete autonomy over the site. However, the Temple Mount area is of great important to both Judaism and Islam, and ownership of the site continues to be a hotly contested point. Some of the major reasons behind its importance for both faiths are outlined below. 
The Temple Mount is especially holy to Jews and Muslims. For Jews, the Temple Mount is the site of the First and Second Temples as well as important events like the creation of Adam, the first sacrifice made by Adam, Abraham's near-sacrifice of Isaac, and Jacob's famous dream of angels and ladders.
 

Beautiful Temple Mount in the night

 

For Muslims, the Temple Mount is the site from which Muhammad embarked on his Night Journey to heaven. The Dome of the Rock, built in 691 AD, is one of the earliest Muslim structures and shelters the very rock on which Muhammad stood. The Temple Mount also contains an ancient and important mosque, the Al Aqsa Mosque, built in 720 AD.
The Temple Mount is a relatively minor site for Christians, but is believed to contain the "pinnacle of the Temple" (Matthew 4:5) from which Satan tempted Jesus to jump to prove his status as the Messiah (near Al Aqsa Mosque). The courtyard by the mosques provides an excellent view of surrounding Christian sites, including the Dome of the Ascension (marking the site from which where Jesus ascended into Heaven) and the church of Dominus Flevit (commemorating the spot where Jesus wept as he saw a vision of Jerusalem in ruins).
 

Reconstruction of Solomon's Temple


The Temple Mount in Judaism
The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism. According to the Bible, the Talmud, and other sources of Jewish tradition, several important events in the history of Judaism took place on the Temple Mount:
Here God gathered the earth from which he formed Adam.
Here Adam, Cain, Abel and Noah offered sacrifices to God.
Here Abraham passed God's test by showing his willingness to sacrifice his son Isaac (the Bible says this is on Mount Moriah, which the Talmud says is another name for the Temple Mount).
Here Jacob dreamt about angels ascending and descending a ladder while sleeping on a stone (the stone in the Dome of the Rock is believed to be the very stone).
The Temple Mount is believed to be the site of the threshing floor overlooking Jerusalem that King David purchased from Aravnah the Jebusite (2 Samuel, 24:18-25).
Here King Solomon built the Temple in 950 BC, which stood for 410 years until it was destroyed by King Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC.
Here the Second Temple was built after the Babylonian Exile, which was destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD.
During Maimonides' residence in Jerusalem, a synagogue stood on the Temple Mount alongside other structures and Maimonides prayed there.


The Temple Mount (Haram esh-Sharif) in Islam
After the Muslim conquest of this region, the Temple Mount became known to Muslims as al-Haram al-Sharif (the Noble Sanctuary). It is regarded by Muslims as the third holiest site after Mecca and Medina.


The main reasons for the Temple Mount's importance for Muslims are these:
Islam respects Abraham, David and Solomon as prophets, and regards the Temple as one of the earliest and most noteworthy places of worship of God. (However, some Muslims dispute that the Temple Mount is the site of the Jewish Temple.)


Verse 17:1 of the Qur'an speaks of the Prophet's night journey to the "farthest Mosque" (al-masjid al-Aqsa). This is traditionally interpreted to be the site at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem on which the mosque of that name now stands.
Muhammad originally established Jerusalem as the qibla (direction of prayer) before changing it to Mecca.
According to Arab historians, when Muslims first entered the city of Jerusalem, the ruins of the Temple were being used as a rubbish dump by the Christian inhabitants, in order to humiliate the Jews and fulfill Jesus' prophecy that not a stone would be left standing on another there. Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab is said to have been horrified at this, ordered it cleaned and performed prayer there at once.


According to the Bible, King David purchased a threshing floor owned by Aravnah the Jebusite (2 Samuel, 24:18-25) overlooking Jerusalem upon the cessation of a plague, to erect an altar. He wanted to construct a permanent temple there, but as his hands were "bloodied," he was forbidden to do so himself, so this task was left to his son Solomon, who completed the task c. 950 BC. After standing for 410 years, the First Temple was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians in 586 BC.
Reconstruction of the Temple began after the exile to Babylonia. The Second Temple was destroyed by the Roman Emperor Titus 420 years later, in 70 CE. The Romans were, however, unable to topple the Western Wall of the Temple Mount.
Upon the destruction of the Temple, the Rabbis revised prayers, and introduced new ones to request the speedy rebuilding of the temple. They also instituted the saying of the portions of the Torah commanding the bringing of the sacrifices in place of the sacrifices themselves.
After the Muslim conquest of this region, the Temple Mount became known to Muslims as al-Haram al-Sharif (the Noble Sanctuary). It is revered by Muslims as the place of longstanding worship of God by the Jewish prophets as well as the site of the Prophet Muhammad's night journey to heaven. The Temple Mount is regarded by Muslims as the third most important holy site, after Mecca and Medina.
 

1. Portico sockets
2. Isardiyya
3. Almalikiyya
4. Pavilion of sultan Mahmud II
5. 2nd-cent. BC ashlars
6. Bab el-Matara
7. West qanatir
8. Ashrafiyya
9. Qubba Nahwiyya
10. Pulpit of Burhan ed-Din
11. Entrance to the Double Gate
12. Double Gate
13. Triple Gate
14. Single Gate
15. Entrance to Solomon's Stables


In 690 CE, after the Islamic conquest of Palestine, an octagonal Muslim shrine (but not a mosque) was built around the rock, which became known as the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat as-Sakhra). In 715 CE the Umayyads rebuilt the Temple's Chanuyos into a mosque, which they named al-Masjid al-Aqsa, "the furthest mosque."
The mosque has been destroyed several times in earthquakes; the current version dates from the first half of the 11th century. Both buildings are considered holy to Muslims and make Jerusalem the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.
The mosque and shrine are currently administered by a Waqf (an Islamic trust) that has been granted almost total autonomy by the State of Israel starting in 1967.
The Temple Mount was open to the general public until September 2000, when Palestinians began throwing stones at Jewish worshipers after then-candidate for prime minister Ariel Sharon visited the area.

Following the onset of violence, the new Sharon government closed the Mount to non-Muslims, using checkpoints to control all pedestrian traffic for fear of further clashes with the Palestinians. The Temple Mount was reopened to non-Muslims in August 2003.
Al Aqsa Mosque (720 AD) - one of the oldest and most beautiful mosques in the world.
Dome of the Rock (691 AD) - contains the rock from which Muhammad is believed to have ascended into heaven on his Night Journey (Qur'an 17) and is believed to be the site of Abraham's near sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis 22).
Dome of the Chain - a smaller dome with beautiful decorations.
Solomon's Stables - underground chambers filled with pigeons, part of the substructure of the Temple Mount constructed by Herod.
Islamic Museum - focuses on Islamic architecture on the Temple Mount.
Western Wall - the retaining wall of Herod's Temple is the holiest Jewish site in the world.
 

The Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount


Temple Mount adalah daerah Bait Suci Yahudi dulu. Lapangan ini luas (bagian barat panjangnya 491 meter, bagian timur panjangnya 462 meter, bagian utara panjangnya 310 meter, dan bagian selatan panjangnya 281 meter), dimana kini berdiri masjid Al Aqsa dan Al Haram Es Sharif (Dome of the Rock). Cadas suci di lapangan ini yang kini terletak di bawah kubah masjid, pada zaman dulu merupakan puncak bukit Muria untuk memperingati kurban Abraham (Kejadian 22:1-19). Di masa pemerintahan raja Daud, bukit ini adalah milik seorang Yebus bernama Arauna. Ia memakainya sebagai tempat pengirikan gandum. Bukit ini dibeli oleh Daud dari Arauna, lalu di atasnya didirikannya mezbah bagi Tuhan dan dipersembahkannya kurban bakaran serta kurban perdamaian.

Ceritanya ada di dalam kitab kedua Samuel bab 24. Sejak itu Daud ingin mendirikan Bait Suci di atas bukit tersebut, tetapi rencana itu berhasil diwujudkan oleh Salomo, anaknya, pada tahun 950 Sebelum Masehi. Bait Suci I (First Temple) itu dihancurkan oleh tentara Babel pada tahun 586 SM, tetapi didirikan kembali oleh Zerubabel pada tahun 516 SM. Bait Suci II (Second Temple) tidak seindah yang pertama, karena itu raja Herodes yang ingin dicintai oleh bangsa Yahudi, dan berbuat apa saja supaya bangsa itu lupa bahwa ia seorang Idumea, pengagum budaya Yunani dan seorang kriminalis, mulai memikirkan pembangunan perluasan Second Temple di bukit Muria itu. Pekerjaan itu dilakukan oleh puluhan ribu tukang, sedangkan ribuan orang Lewi mempelajari teknik membangun tembok.

Lapangan bukit Muria diperluas di sebelah utara dan dari semua sudut dikelilingi oleh pelataran, kecuali sebelah barat laut dimana berdiri benteng Antonia. Pelataran timur bernama pelataran Salomo, yang di sebelah selatan bernama pelataran Rajawi. Setiap pelataran mencakup 4 deretan tiang setinggi 8 meter. Orang-orang kafir boleh berdoa di sebuah lapangan khusus yang dimasuki dengan melewati pelataran luar tadi. Mereka tidak boleh memasuki bagian yang dikhususkan bagi bangsa Yahudi saja. Hal ini diingatkan lewat tulisan dalam bahasa Yunani dan Latin yang ditempatkan pada 13 tiang. Bila mereka memasuki daerah terlarang, mereka dihukum mati.

Bangunan utama Bait Suci di sebelah timur mencakup sebuah lapangan yang dikelilingi dengan tembok. Lapangan itu dapat dimasuki lewat 9 gerbang: 4 di sebelah utara, 4 di sebelah selatan, dan 1 di sebelah timur. Gerbang yang terakhir itu paling indah dan dikenal sebagai gerbang Korintus. Gerbang itu kiranya sama dengan yang disebut 'Pintu Indah' (bdk. Kis. 3:2). Lapangan itu terbagi dua, yang satu dikhususkan bagi kaum wanita Yahudi, dan yang lain bagi kaum pria. Bagian barat sekitar mezbah pembakaran hanya boleh dimasuki oleh para imam. Di sebelah barat dari mezbah ada Bait Suci yang sesungguhnya. Pembangunan bagian utama Bait Suci itu berhasil dilakukan oleh Herodes dalam 8 tahun. Tetapi pembangunan bagian-bagian lain berlangsung lama sekali. Menjelang wafatnya Yesus, pekerjaan di daerah Bait Suci belum selesai. Sambil memandang kemegahan segala bangunan itu, Yesus berkata, "Apakah kalian melihat semuanya itu? Ketahuilah, tidak ada satu batupun dari bangunan-bangunan itu akan tinggal tersusun pada tempatnya. Semuanya akan dirubuhkan" (Matius 24:2).

Bait Suci Yahudi itu disebut dalam Injil berkali-kali. Di situlah Zakharia mengalami penglihatan malaikat Tuhan (Lukas 1:8-22). Maria mempersembahkan Yesus di Bait Suci itu (Lukas 2:22-40). Yesus yang masih remaja bercakap-cakap dengan para ahli kitab di tempat itu (Lukas 2:22-40). Menyucikan Bait Suci (Yohanes 2:13-22), dan di situ mengamati seorang janda yang mempersembahkan seluruh nafkahnya demi kemuliaan Allah (Lukas 21:1-4).

Nubuat Yesus tentang Bait Suci menjadi kenyataan pada tahun 70, Yerusalem dihancurkan, sedangkan Bait Suci dibakar. Pada tahun 132 Bar-Kokhba memimpin lagi pemberontakan Yahudi terhadap Roma. Pada tahun 135 kaisar Hadrianus sekali lagi bertindak secara kejam terhadap bangsa Yahudi. Di tempat berdirinya Bait Suci, ditempatkannya patung kuda. Julianus Apostata (361-362) berusaha membangun Bait Suci kembali , tetapi pekerjaan dihentikan karena nyala api yang konon keluar dari dalam tanah. Sejak itu lapangan bukit Muria terlantar.

Umat Kristen menghindari tempat ini sebagai tempat yang pernah dikutuk oleh Yesus. Daerah itu akhirnya menjadi tempat pembuangan sampah, dan begitulah keadaannya sampai datangnya orang-orang Arab ke Yerusalem.

Mereka memandang bukit Muria sebagai tempat yang disucikan oleh kehadiran nabi Muhammad, sehingga mendirikan di atasnya salah satu masjid terindah di dunia Islam. Masjid sekarang didirikan pada tahun 691 oleh Abdul Malik yang menggantikan sebuah masjid kecil yang berdiri di situ sejak tahun 636. Pada tahun 1099 para pejuang Perang Salib mengubah kubah cadas (yang secara kurang tepat disebut masjid Omar) menjadi sebuah gereja dengan nama Templum Domini (=Gereja Tuhan).

Namun pada tahun 1187, sesudah Yerusalem direbut oleh Saladin, salib emas yang ditempatkan di atas kubah masjid disingkirkan, dan sejak itu masjid itu sepenuhnya di tangan umat Islam. Tetapi masjid sekarang mengalami pemugaran berulang kali selama 13 abad.


In times of political unrest, check governmental warnings on the advisability of visiting Temple Mount.
Be sure to wear modest dress for your visit to the Temple Mount, and remember to remove your shoes before entering the Muslim shrines. You are asked not to engage in any religious activity (including prayer) in the mosques.
The Temple Mount is open Saturday to Thursday 7:30-11:00am and 1:30-3:00pm in the summer; 8:00-10:30 and 12:30-2:00pm in the winter. The Temple Mount is closed on all Christian, Jewish or Muslim holidays and any other days considered "sensitive" by the Muslim custodians of the site.
You cannot enter the Dome of the Rock or the El Aksa Mosque during Muslim midday prayers, but you may usually remain on the Temple Mount.
Some Jews visit the Temple Mount only with extreme caution or not at all, due to fears of treading on the forbidden parts of the Temple.
Admission cost is included in the combined ticket for El-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock, and Islamic Museum, which is NIS 36 ($9).

 

 

TEMPLE MOUNT & THE THIRD TEMPLE

 

 

GOD IS THE LORD WHO DOES MIRACLES

   

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